He was opposed for the office by Meira Kumar, a Dalit from the Indian National Congress party who is a former speaker of Parliament’s lower house.
“Dalit politics suddenly has come center stage with a bang,” Neerja Chowdhury, a political analyst, said. “Every leader is bending over backward to show ‘I am a well-wisher.’ ”
Mr. Kovind was born Oct. 1, 1945, in a village in the Kanpur district of Uttar Pradesh into a family of the Kori caste, known as underprivileged even among the Dalits. He has practiced as a lawyer in the Supreme Court and served as a B.J.P. member of the upper house of Parliament from 1994 to 2006. Most recently, he was the governor of Bihar State.
Mr. Kovind’s connections to Uttar Pradesh are also considered significant. India’s most populous state, it will figure prominently in the 2019 general election, when Mr. Modi will make every effort to forge a broad coalition among India’s Hindu majority. Despite being the governing party in Uttar Pradesh, the B.J.P. has not historically captured much of the Dalit vote, and recent flare-ups over issues affecting Dalits across the country could hurt the party politically.
Last year, a Dalit scholar committed suicide in Hyderabad after being suspended following altercations with a right wing Hindu campus group. Dalits have also been attacked over suspicions of cow slaughter by mobs of Hindus, who regard cows as sacred. And there were repeated clashes in May in Uttar Pradesh between Dalits and members of a higher caste.
Under Mr. Modi, the party has nevertheless made some inroads in the Dalit vote, and it has won elections in Uttar Pradesh with large margins in recent years.
Nilanjan Mukhopadhyay, a journalist who has written a biography of Mr. Modi, said Mr. Kovind had been selected “purely because of his identity, not his accomplishments.”
The presidency, while a position of high esteem, has little power. The president, among other duties, has the ability to call elections, break ties in Parliament and issue death-row pardons. The current president, Pranab Mukherjee, who will step down on Monday, occasionally used the platform to draw attention to the importance of tolerance, though he was largely a cautious figure.
Mr. Kovind, as a B.J.P. member, is expected to work in step with the government. His selection is another step in the party’s consolidation of power. When it was last in power, the party chose A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, a pick more appealing to the opposition because he was a Muslim and not a party insider. This time such an accommodation was unnecessary, analysts said.
“This is a milestone moment for Indian politics,” Mr. Malik said.