Stocks slid on Thursday in part on worries that the president’s ruptured relations with business would damage his plans to jump-start economic growth. The decline steepened after the terrorist attack in Barcelona.
The Standard & Poor’s 500 stock index closed the day down 1.54 percent, and the Dow Jones industrial average ended down 1.24 percent. The closely watched VIX, the Chicago Board Options Exchange Volatility Index, better known as Wall Street’s fear gauge, soared more than 30 percent.
On Thursday, the White House announced that a presidential advisory group on infrastructure policy and investment was also disbanding.
A number of companies, including Merck, Under Armour, Intel, Pepsi, G.E., IBM and Johnson & Johnson, made public statements this week condemning Mr. Trump’s remarks that “many sides” were responsible for the violence in Virginia as being at odds with their corporate values.
Some of his supporters in the business world and several corporate members of the advisory groups, meanwhile, have not said anything publicly about Charlottesville.
One of the more vocal supporters of Mr. Trump’s economic agenda, Stephen A. Schwarzman, the chief executive of the private equity giant the Blackstone Group, has condemned the events in Charlottesville.
As the one who conceived of and, at the president’s request, led the most prominent of the shuttered White House councils, he has felt the recent tensions between corporate America and the president most keenly. Mr. Schwarzman, of all the council members, maintained the most consistent contact with the president.
According to people who have spoken with him, Mr. Schwarzman was disappointed that the panel was not able to fulfill its ultimate function, which was to help the president deliver on his pro-growth promises by offering tips and advice from the front lines of business and finance.
Now that the panel has disbanded, it remains unclear if Mr. Schwarzman will continue to discuss policy with the president.
The unfolding corporate response to Mr. Trump — and the varied reactions by companies — reflects the constellation of outside pressures top corporate executives face today, management experts say.
“Principled stances are not common,” said Rosabeth Moss Kanter, a professor at Harvard Business School. “They wait for public opinion to tell them what to do.”
“C.E.O. courage is in short supply,” she said.
That is more the case these days than back in the 1960s and 1970s, when business leaders like Irving S. Shapiro of DuPont, Reginald H. Jones of G.E. and Thomas Watson Jr. of IBM often led public opinion, said Jeffrey Sonnenfeld, a professor at the Yale School of Management.
Some business leaders, Mr. Sonnenfeld said, were advocates for the creation of federal environmental protection programs, and Mr. Jones of G.E. popularized the phrase “corporate social responsibility.”
But their contemporary counterparts, he said, are under much greater pressure to deliver quarterly profits, travel constantly and work almost round the clock.
“They don’t have the time or the support in their boardrooms to be corporate statespeople,” Mr. Sonnenfeld said.
The modern C.E.O., said Michael Useem, a management professor at the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School, holds a job that calls for “great pragmatism” under scrutiny from shareholders, consumers, employees and advocacy groups, all of which is amplified by the instantaneous communication of social media.
In dealing with Mr. Trump, corporate executives had to weigh speaking out against the risk of being the target of a presidential tweetstorm or the potential loss of lucrative government contracts.
Mr. Trump may be mercurial and unpredictable, but access to the White House can put a favored executive or investor in a position to influence policy.
Peter Thiel, who was the only major figure in Silicon Valley to endorse Mr. Trump, has parlayed that endorsement and a last-minute $1.25 million donation to the candidate’s campaign into an unofficial role as his top tech adviser.
In March, Mr. Thiel’s chief of staff, Michael Kratsios, became the White House’s deputy chief technology officer. Mr. Thiel recently participated in administration discussions that resulted in a harder line toward China over possible intellectual-property violations.
Mr. Thiel has given no indication he is backing off from his support for Mr. Trump. A spokesman for Mr. Thiel declined to comment Thursday.
Some of Mr. Trump’s closest allies in business come from the private precincts of Wall Street investors, hedge funds and real estate partnerships. They face few of the pressures that the chief executives of public companies must juggle.
Mr. Trump’s supporters in the hedge fund industry have included Paul Singer, Steven A. Cohen and John Paulson. And Carl C. Icahn, the billionaire investor, is an unpaid adviser to Mr. Trump on regulatory matters. (All did not respond to requests for comment.)
Mr. Trump has long relied on a close and informal circle of advisers to give him a quick read on economic and financial matters. Among the more prominent in this regard is Thomas J. Barrack Jr., a billionaire real estate investor who has known the president for decades.
Mr. Barrack, who made his fortune snapping up undervalued real estate assets, is the executive chairman of Colony NorthStar, and has been a trusted confidant to Mr. Trump during the campaign and since he took office.
Kenneth G. Langone, billionaire co-founder of Home Depot and a prominent Republican fund-raiser, has been a vocal supporter of Mr. Trump’s economic agenda.
“I had high hopes — the president has blown a great opportunity,” Mr. Langone said in an interview on Thursday. “He completely mishandled the situation in Charlottesville. There was no gray area here — these people were repulsive.”
Mr. Langone said that the president’s provocative comments on the protests were a “self-inflicted wound” that would hurt his ability to address pressing national needs like infrastructure.
Still, despite their building frustrations and disappointments, some Trump supporters may feel that they should stick by him, betting on his proven ability as a survivor.
“Do I have a choice? No,” Mr. Langone said. “I still believe he can get a lot done and he has an uncanny knack of surviving — I mean who would have thought he was going to win in the first place?”